Glossary of Terms
The finishing department, which performs operations on the printed product after it has been printed. The bindery operations are as follows: Folding, Binding, Stitching, Scoring, Perforation and Die Cutting.
Different methods used to secure loose pages in a book are called binding. Saddle stitch is an example of binding.
Printed colors that extend past the edge of a page. To cut the job to its actual size the processor has to make sure the job gets printed with 1/8 of an inch bleed some jobs may require more than that. For example if the job is a business card (3.5" x 2") the file size with bleed would be (3.625" x 2.125").
An outline around graphics, text or edge of a sheet.
The primary colors used in 4-color printing. CMYK are used to reproduce full color on the printed sheet. CMYK also called PROCESS COLOR
C: Cyan (Blue)
M: Magenta (Red)
K: Key (Black)
The mixture of clay materials that are applied to paper to improve the smoothness of the paper's surface and improve ink holdout during the printing process. Examples are Aqueous coating (AQ) and UV coating. UV coating adds a gloss finish to the product and also improves the vibrancy of the printed colors. Spot-UV can be applied to selected portions of the piece, while keeping the rest a matte finish.
Crop Marks (Guide Marks):
Lines printed in the margin of sheet that indicates to the cutter and bindery where the finished product should be trimmed. They are also used to show what part of a photo should be used and what part should be cropped off.
A specific shape like circle, star, etc (any designs that cannot be done by a straight cut) which is cut by a metal blade. Door hangers and pocket folders are a popular product which requires die cutting.
Another name for advertising mail sent to targeted markets. It can be any mail class, but it is usually Standard Mail.
Dots Per Inch (dpi):
A measurement of resolution of input, output and display devices. 300 dpi means that when printed, each square inch of your image will contain 90,000 pixels (dots), the higher the dpi (the more pixels per inch) the more crisp the printed image will be. Electronic (digital files) have to have a resolution of at least 300 dpi. Anything less than that is considered as low resolution and may appear blurry when printed.
A process of imprinting an image by applying pressure to the back side of a material to change the surface, giving it a three dimensional or raised effect. Embossing can be referred to as raised lettering.
Finished Size / Trim Size:
The size of a printed product after all production operations have been completed.
The size of a printed product after printing and trimming but before any finishing operations that affect its size, such as folding.
Printing that goes to the edge of all four sides of the page.
A strip of paper containing gray tones ranging from white to black. So gray scale refers to black and white printed material.
A letter, card, or similar item placed inside another mail piece (host piece).
A transparent screen which has been etched with fine lines. It is used to convert a picture or photograph into a halftone dot pattern so that can be printed. Most commercial printers use 150-200 line screens (commonly seen as 150lpi or 200lpi).
The non-printed areas around the image area of a page.
The transfer of an inked image from a plate to a blanket cylinder, which in turn transfers the image to the printing material as it passes between the blanket and the impression cylinder and pressure is applied. Also referred to as offset lithography.
Printing an image over an area that has already been printed. In printing process colors, one process color is printed over another creating a secondary color, which is a combination of two primary colors.
Pantone Matching System (PMS):
A registered name for an ink color matching system used to compare, match and identify specific colors.
The direction in which the fibers line up during the manufacturing process. It is easier to fold, bend, or tear the paper along the same direction of the fibers. Cut sheet laser printers generally use long grain paper in which the grain runs parallel to the long side of the paper, resulting in better performance through the laser printer.
Creating a series of holes so that the paper can be torn more easily along the line that is formed. Postage stamps and tear-off cards are common products that require perforation.
The smallest unit of a digitized image created by a digital device, such as a computer, camera, or scanner. Pixel is short for "picture element". The more pixels per inch the better the resolution. On computer monitors, the display is divided into rows and columns containing thousands or millions of pixels. Each pixel is composed of three dots representing the three color channels of red, green, and blue light that are necessary for creating a color image on computer monitors and television screens. Because of their small size, the pixels appear to merge, simulating a continuous tone image, but when magnified they appear to be tiny square blocks of light, as shown in the illustration.
Checking a proof for errors or discrepancies from the original copy.
Drilling of holes through a stack of paper. Applicable & popular sizes are 1/8" & 5/16".
The printed marks used to align color separations for printing so that each color registers with each other.
The measurement of output quality expressed in pixels (dots) per inch on a computer monitor or dots per inch on printed media. For example, a monitor displaying a resolution of 800 by 600 refers to a screen capable of displaying 800 pixels in each of 600 lines, which translates into a total of 480,000 pixels displayed on the screen. When referring to printed media, a 300 dpi (dots per inch) printer for example, is capable of outputting 300 dots in a one-inch line, which means that it has the ability of printing 90,000 distinct dots per square inch (300 x 300).
The additive primary colors, red, green and blue, used to display color in video monitors. Printing with a file in RGB color mode will produce a washed out appearance.
Using a machine to die cut the corners of forms, cards and books to create a rounded corner.
The method of binding the pages of a section where the folded pages are stitched through the fold from the outside, using a wire staple (stapling).
A crease applied, in a straight line, to a sheet of paper to allow it to fold easier and more accurately.
Preparation required to prepare an image for imprint, creating a die, plate or digitizing.
A slit can refer to cuts made that do not divide a sheet. For example, on a presentation folder smaller diagonal slits can be made on the pockets where business cards can then be displayed.
Book binding that consists of a spiral wire or plastic that is wound through holes. Also referred to as coil binding.
Spot Coating / Spot UV:
Coating paper only in specific areas as opposed to all over coating. In a Spot UV job the job gets a UV coating in only specific areas and does not get any AQ coating in any other places. Spot UV can be referred to as spot varnish.
Printing with one or more solid colors, generally black ink is used with the addition of other color, usually PMS (Pantone Colors). It is used to add highlight and add color to a printed product without having to print with four-color process.
A booklet containing samples of paper or ink colors.
The process of converting text into type used for printing.
Ultra Violet. The part of the spectrum where the wavelength of light is shorter than the wavelength of visible light.
A liquid coating applied to the printed piece, which is then bonded and cured with ultraviolet light. This coating is used to provide a protective coating to the printed image.
A thin, liquid protective coating, either matte or glossy, that is applied to the product. It adds protection and enhances the appearance of the product. It can be applied as an all over coating or it can be applied as a spot coating.